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What happened to the Jews?

Substance of a talk given in Brecon on the 17th October 2023 (in the wake of the Hamas breakout from Gaza and subsequent Israeli retaliation)

A community of Jewish immigrants to Palestine, 1910-11

Note: The first, 'Ukrainian', part of this essay is drawn from the series of articles related one way or another to Alexander Solzhenitsyn I've been writing for the Irish journal Church and State. These appear on my website under the headings Two centuries together and Who are the Ukrainians? at They provide much more detail than was possible in the framework of a single talk.

Traditional Judaism
Cossacks and Jews
Jews and Ukrainians in the Russian Empire
Secular Judaism
The February Revolution
'Russian' Jews in Palestine - The Iron Wall
The ethnic cleansing of Palestine
Where are we now?

The full text can be downloaded as a PDF file here